Sunday, December 28, 2014

Cultural Law, a text and a cautionary tale...

Cambridge text on Cultural Law that has some interesting chapters on Indigenous Peoples, including Maori, on the basis that 'legal issues lead multiple lives.. they can be political, economic, social, historical, and cultural' (p. 1).

A New Zealand example is legislation to regulate against offensive marks in the Trade Marks Act of 2002 that prevents trade marks being registered if they are likely to be offensive to a significant section of the community, including Maori.

Of course, there is always a test case to rattle the cage. I recall an application for Tiki Wines being declined by the Maori Trade Marks Advisory Committee on the basis of this offense clause with 'TIki' being interpreted as an atua of humankind, generic to all Maori and thus protected by this legislation.

Permission was finally given when it was pointed out that 'Tiki' was a tipuna of Royce McKean and the whanau who owned and operated the vineyard, and they had the perfect right to use the name!

Wednesday, December 24, 2014

Thar she blows...MoBIE report on white elephants?

Further to the reports released by MPI on Maori land productivity comes a negative report on MoBIEs performance on, among other tings, the Business Growth Agenda (BGA. Page 24 notes 'no sense of the extent to which these actions are contributing, or will be sufficient, to achieve the BGA goals.'

Say what?!

As for direct engagement with Maori, 'MBIE’s approach is embryonic and needs to clarify what the right role for government is in helping promote Māori economic development in the post-Treaty settlement phase. While MBIE is more focused on this issue than its constituent agencies, has better links with other agencies and has an advisory panel to help it still needs to refine its approach, develop its relationships with Māori business and build its internal capacity.' (p. 26).

So situation normal then.

Further, 'Expectations need to be well anchored in more refined deliverables or there is a risk they 
will get ahead of what government either should be doing or can actually deliver.'

The trick is to have zero expectations and then be relieved when they spell your name right.

MoBIE is behind other Ministries in '[s]ector collaboration and partnership' which are 'particularly important to realise the benefits from accelerating Māori economic development, particularly given MBIE’s starting place. MBIE has much to learn from organisations, such as MPI and NZTE which got an earlier start.' 9p. 53).

I'm not convinced 'accelerating' our economic development is possible in the vacuum of Pakeha leadership in this point in time and space.

Pardon the cynicism but it's Xmas. Gordon Campbell of Scoop discusses this and other 'bad news dumps' to herald the close of the year.

Tuesday, December 23, 2014

'One the first day of Xmas my government gave to me, a Maaori ecooooonomyyy'

The latest reports on 'our economy' are out. This one from Kinnect/MPI finds that not only is MPI brilliant at working with (selected) Maori, there remain issues over governance, scale and capability, specifically:
  • a need to consolidate multiple owners with small shareholdings into mandated governance entities with effective decision making;
  • economic scale to support profitable agribusiness;
  • and the capability to grow agribusiness productivity and profitability.
Another report (PriceWaterhouseCoopers/MPI December 2014, same link as above) has some interesting tables on Maori land use and potential for improvement. Note over a quarter of Maori Freehold Land (MFL) is in natural forest and a further 8% in plantation forest. Conversion to dairying remains the sexy beast in the picture... 

The purpose of this report was to confirm the value of additional work into converting and otherwise innovating on Maori land (the original impetus for this came from the BERL reports of 2011 I've posted on before). The Benfit Cost Ratio of 'interventions' are tabulated below, by sector:

A figure below 1 means you technically 'lose' money by intervention.

We can quibble about methodology till the cows come home but dairying remains the go to approach for growing our/the economy (although note horticultures high BCR though against a very low percentage of MFL).

So, business-as-usual.

Given the now confirmed decline of our water quality, including our iconic beaches (remember when iwi/Maori were the risk to these strips of foreshore and seabed?!), there are considerable costs and risks associated with dairy. Further, given the urban character of our rangatahi and the struggle we have with the education system, how to we get our people into secure employment when the trend is less security?

No answers, just more patai.

Meri kirihimete tatou katoa!
Simon Lambert


Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Ecology Scholarship at Lincoln University

Lincoln University and Wairewa Runanga are delivering a two year research
programme to research and evaluate how native plant communities can provide benefits to land and water eco-systems with specific application around the shoreline of Te Roto o Wairewa (Lake Forsyth, Wairewa, Little River).

The results are to inform environmental management strategy and practices that will improve the ecological wellbeing of the lake and its environs. The two year scholarship includes tuition fees and payment of an annual stipend. A team including Wairewa leaders and leading ecologist Professor Nick Dickinson will supervise and support the student. Myself and other Maori colleagues will also be a part of that support :)

For more information contact Lincoln University:
Professor Nick Dickinson - E: DD: (04) 423 0741 or
Carmelle Riley - Contact - Mobile – 0275 361 699

I'm happy to talk to potential applicants as well.

Monday, December 08, 2014

Maori Council report opens door for urbans

Expansion of Maori collective representation as Maori Council report opens door for urbans...

Just a reminder, 85-ish% of Maori are urban. We're not all 'disconnected' but many have little if any contact with 'iwi' (a social cosntruct is ever there was one).

Maori have always been able to collectivise and support each other through promoting and enacting our culture. The challenge now is to revisit our economic structures and make sure this trickle down isn't just mimi.


Iwi muscle on workers' rights?

Interesting challenge to corporate behaviour from CTU Vice Prez, Syd Keepa.

Keepa reckons iwi could threaten to pull funds from ANZ unless the Ozzie banker stops being such a wan#*@er to its staff...

He notes that iwi leaders and Maori farmers forced Affco into good faith negotiations with its workers, who were on strike.

I'm not sure iwi are the activist collectives that Keepa hopes. Read more:

Meanwhile opposition MP Nanaia Mahuta is trumpeting Labour's 'Future of Work Commission' as a way for Māori businesses, trusts, Iwi organisations and small businesses to discover further opportunities to boost regional development.

Saturday, December 06, 2014

New website on Maori Resilience

I've just built a new website as a location for our work on Maori Resilience, particularly that undertaken on our Ru Whenua/Christchurch earthquakes projects. It will also contain a blog on which I'll post on updates on, among other things, progress on the Resilience to Nature's Risks National Science Challenge I'm peripherally engaged on.

Work-in-progress as we say...

Website here

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Maori, Maori economy, and Mondragon...

I'm working on a great project led by Dr. Shaun Awatere of LandCare looking at the 'Maoriness of the Maori economy'.

My role is minor, reviewing some of the models of managing collective resources such as those owned and operated by Maori collectives. One example I've always been fascinated by is the Mondragón Cooperative Group in the Basque Country. Mondragón began in the 1950s with the production of small oil stoves. These principles are can be mapped onto a broad Socialist Christian interpretation of how to conduct business, with worker solidarity being coupled to a strong humanitarian charitable ethos.

Needing capital to expand, the group founded their own bank based on the same collective prinicples (based on the teachings of Father José María Arizmendiarrieta Madariaga). More success saw the group splitting into new ventures of inter-related worker-owned businesses.

Now Mondragon is up of nearly 300 businesses, most in the Basque Country and Navarra, employing over 80,000 people, 70,000 in Spain with the rest employed all over the world.

Mondragon has been a fascination for researchers for many years, not least because of its flourishing during a severe economic recession in Spain and the rest of Europe between 1975 and 1985. While the rest of the Basque region lost 150,000 jobs, Mondragon added 4,000 jobs

At its core are a set of values encapsulated by ten principles:

1.       Open Admission
The Mondragon co-operative experience is open to all men and women who accept these Basic Principles without any type of discrimination.
2.       Democratic Organisation
The basic equality of worker-members in terms of their rights to be, possess and know, which implies acceptance of a democratically organised company based on the sovereignty of the General Assembly, electing governing bodies and collaborating with managerial bodies.
3.       Sovereignty of labour
Labour is the main factor for transforming nature, society and human beings themselves. As a result, the systematic recruitment of salaried workers has been abandoned, full sovereignty is attached to labour, the wealth created is distributed in terms of the labour provided and there is a will to extend the job options available to all members of society.
4.       Instrumental and subordinate nature of capital
Capital is considered to be an instrument subordinate to labour, which is necessary for business development. Therefore it is understood to be worthy of fair and suitable remuneration, which is limited and not directly linked to the profits obtained, and availability subordinate to the continuity and development of the co-operative.
5.       Participatory management
The steady development of self-management and, consequently, of member participation in the area of company management which, in turn, requires the development of adequate mechanisms for participation, transparent information, consultation and negotiation, the application of training plans and internal promotion.
6.       Payment solidarity
Sufficient and fair pay for work as a basic principle of its management, based on the permanent vocation for sufficient collective social promotion in accordance with the real possibilities the co-operative has, and fair on an internal, external and MCC level.
7.       Inter-cooperation
As the specific application of solidarity and as a requirement for business efficiency, the Principle of Inter-cooperation should be evident: between individual co-operatives, between subgroups and between the Mondragón co-operative experience and Basque co-operative organisations, and co-operative movements in Spain, Europe and the rest of the world.
8.       Social Transformation
The willingness to ensure fair social transformation with other peoples by being involved in an expansion process that helps towards their economic and social reconstruction and with the construction of a freer, fairer and more caring Basque society.
9.       Universality
Its solidarity with all those who work for economic democracy in the area of the Social Economy by adopting the objectives of Peace, Justice and Development which are inherent to the International Co-operative Movement.
10.   Education
To promote the establishment of the principles stated above, it is essential to set aside sufficient human and financial resources for co-operative, professional and youth education.

It's not all beer and skittles for Mondragon. In 2013 one of the most important Mondragon ventures, whiteware manufacturer Fagor (a direct descendent of the original stove business), filed for bankruptcy. 

The larger questions posed by the failure of Fagor is the relationship of large-scale economic institutions to the market regardless of the wider economic system, and the lessons this holds for long-term systemic evolution for societies and collectives looking to move beyond the failings of corporate capitalism and traditional socialism.

While Mondragon is having to rationalise its workforce there remains a commitment to reinvest in its workers and communities once the wider economic situation improves. Current economic constraints have seen harsh austerity measures around the world, including Aotearoa. 

There are always AlterNatives...

A proud history of struggle and a strong cultural identity has helped the Mondragon collectives survive industrial and economic upheavals from the economic and cultural periphery of a major economic trading bloc. This hybrid approach is not without its failures. But the accumulation of considerable business acumen and market intelligence embeds continually evolving networks while retaining the democratic decision-making the supports consensual principles.

Maori can learn from others. And we can teach.

We're looking at publishing our first reports soon. And Shaun has secured more funding to take it even further!

Watch this space...

Alperovitz, G., & Hanna, T. M. (2013, Nov 1, 2013). Mondragón and the System Problem. Retrieved October 14, 2014, from

Flecha, R., & Ngai, P. (2014). The challenge for Mondragon: Searching for the cooperative values in times of internationalisation. Organization, 21(5), 666-682.

Macleod, G. (1997). From Mondragon to America: Experiments in Community Economic Development. Sydney: University of Cape Breton Press. From Mondragon to America: Experiments in Community Economic Development

Father José María Arizmendiarrieta Madariaga

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Special Issue of MAI Journal on Maori Resilience

Just published free and online by Nga Pae o te Maramatanga's MAI (Maori and Indigenous) Journal along with five other teams researching the concept of resilience for Maori.
In my article, titled "Maori and the Christchurch Earthquakes: the interplay between Indigenous endurance and resilience through urban disaster" - I discuss the challenges for urban Indigenous communities - Maori are 85% urban - and analyse survey data that shows whanau size and pre-disaster economic security are key causal components for those Maori who have maintained or even improved their well-being in a post-disaster landscape.
The lead article is by Mera Penehira, Alison Green, Linda Tuhiwai Smith andClive Aspin - “Māori and Indigenous Views on R & R: Resistance and Resilience” - and explores resilience discourse through the development of Māori and Indigenous frameworks. Is the concept of resilience is simply the most current means by which the State encourages Māori to reframe the experience of colonisation as one of successful “adaption” to adversity?
Conceptualising the Link Between Resilience and Whānau Ora: Results From a Case Study” by Amohia Boulton and Heather Gifford presents a qualitative case study undertaken with a Māori health provider and discusses the link between resilience and the concept of whānau ora.
Jordan Waiti and Te Kani Kingi’s contribution titled “Whakaoranga Whānau: Whānau Resilience” explores “resilience strategies” and the multiple ways in which whānau contribute to the development of their members and the various mechanisms employed to foster growth and security. It is argued that understanding how whānau operate has implications for service delivery and policy design.
In “End-of-Life Care and Māori Whānau Resilience”, Tess Moeke-Maxwell, Linda Nikora and Ngahuia Te Aweokotuku discuss the cultural resources which assist Māori whānau in being resilient when caring for a family member at the end of life. The study illustrates that the economic and material ramifications of colonialism significantly impact on Māori at the end of life, influencing the ability of whānau to identify and access much needed resources and palliative care support.
In their second contribution to this issue, titled “Community-Based Responses to High Rates of HIV among Indigenous Peoples”, Clive Aspin, Mera Penehira, Alison Green and Linda Tuhiwai Smith compare findings from Australia, Canada and New Zealand and explore how community-based initiatives play a vital role in overcoming the challenges Indigenous people face in dealing with HIV and other chronic conditions.
Many thanks to reviewers and the editorial team, and especially to Amoia Boulton and Heather Gifford who have shepherded us through a long and tortuous process! The Issue will be formally launched on the first day of the International Indigenous Development Research Conference, Auckland, November 25-28, 2014.

Thursday, November 13, 2014

Maori unemployment back up?

WTF as the rangatahi would say...

Yeah, we're the brown line, the line that is heading UP while the other line (labelled 'European' in the Houshold Labour Force Stats), the blue line, is heading down.

Oh yeah, what the fuck indeed...

Thursday, October 23, 2014

Indigenous Peoples as Citizen Scientists

I'm off to the inaugural Citizen Science Conference in San Jose, February 11-12 next year. I'll be delivering a 'speed talk' which entails 5 minutes to deliver the message, a great idea for conferences where it can be hard talk sitting through hour after hour of deliveries...

My 300 seconds will be on the role of Indigenous Peoples in this CitSci space. We hold important knowledge of their environments. This ancient knowledge is increasingly sought as data for a variety of scientific disciplines and practices including environmental management, ecology, ethnobotany, fisheries, forestry, and disaster risk reduction. Many Indigenous communities are not opposed to working with scientists and various international conventions have articulated a role for Indigenous knowledge, particularly traditional ecological knowledge. However, the history of much ‘collaboration’ has created significant barriers to progressing truly inclusive Citizen Science in many countries. I'll give a few brief examples from Aotearoa New Zealand will to show that empowering Indigenous individuals and collectives as 'Citizen Scientists' will require an acceptance of possibly radically different worldviews as well as the acknowledgement of broader issues of justice and ethics.

Thursday, October 02, 2014

Housing in a Post-disaster landscape: Otautahi/Christchurch

A report just published by Te Puawaitanga ki Otautahi reveals how bad the situation is in the city after the earthquakes. Their survey found that housing has 'declined dramatically' with the standard of most housing deteriorating and the high costs of private rental meaning many whanau have to share their home with extended family, sometimes having to relocate outside of the city.
A key challenge is finding warm dry affordable housing.
As a result of poor housing, health risks have increased, particularly skin infections and respiratory problems, anxiety and stress.
Babies are at higher risk to SIDS.
Given some of the raised eyebrows I get when I keep presenting and publishing how bad the post-disaster city is for many Maori, it is getting (quoting Alice in Wonderland) curiouser and curiouser how little attention this gets by Maori and non-Maori authorities.
It is also difficult to see this situation improving anytime soon. Think back to when the Minister of Earthquake Recovery assured us the 'the market' would provide solutions.
He's dead right of course, and this is what the market solution looks like.
Full report available here

Sunday, September 21, 2014

2014 Election: the ongoing disengagement of the electorate

I haven't posted anything on the politics of Aotearoa NZ in the lead up to this election - there are more informed Maori researchers than myself who are posting on this - but the following graphic paints a stark picture of disengagement.

The seemingly endless revelations of sleeze, corruption and bullying may contribute to this malaise but I have a sneaking suspicion young people were disengaging way before the scandals.

It's become a trait of my generation (born in '65, tailend of the baby boomers) to bemoan 'young people today...'

Well, they're our kids, our nephews and nieces, our employees and our students. Did we expect them to follow in our footsteps as civic-minded citizenry?! Other than voting and paying our taxes, what did my generation do for the country?

I think we've all become complacent. We took our clean-ness and green-ness for granted and now face massive costs to retain what's left of the environment. Education is increasingly costly and uneven in its quality. Kids are eating shit food, racism and sexism are ingrained, the mainstream media is peddling trivia and its just getting harder and harder to believe in government and the corporate sector even like us.

Hard rain's gonna fall...

Thursday, September 18, 2014

Vision Matauranga project: Pan-iwi disaster risk reduction...

Pleased to announce we have been successful in this years Vision Matauranga round:

              Maori Disaster and Emergency Management
Taking Maori from the edge of disasters to the centre of influence.

We know Maori institutions and cultural practices played an integral part in the disaster response to the Christchurch earthquakes of 2010-12. This response from Maori was spontaneously extended to include non-Maori support through well-established but dynamic and evolving Maori cultural networks. Local Maori insights (both Ngāi Tahu and Ngā Maata Waka/Taura Here) were particularly valuable in supporting the vulnerable city residents including the elderly and mental health clients. Maori, both individually and collectively, operated alongside first responder organisations such as the Fire Service and Police, government and NGO officials, iwi authorities, international emergency workers, churches and volunteers. 

This project aims to improve engagement between Maori and mainstream disaster and emergency organisations to enable Maori to engage as Citizen Scientists and in turn enable more efficient responses to future disasters, whether that be in the rescue of survivors, the provision of emergency supplies, medical care, emergency repairs and ongoing pastoral support.

Monday, September 15, 2014

Indigenous Peoples and urban disaster: Māori responses to the 2010-12 Christchurch earthquakes

We've just published another article from our research into how Maori were impacted by the earthquakes in Christchurch over the past 3 years. In this article I argue that although Indigenous Peoples retain traditional coping strategies for disasters despite their frequent marginalisation, Indigenous communities are increasingly urban and away from their traditional territories. I go on to describe the impacts on and response of Māori to the Canterbury earthquakes of 2010 and 2012 through analyses of available statistical data and reports, and interviews done six months and then 14-16 months after the most damaging event, noting that a significant difference between Māori and ‘mainstream’ New Zealand is the greater mobility enacted by Māori throughout this period. I reiterate that Maori organisations deployed resources beyond their traditional catchments throughout the disaster, including important support for non-Māori. Relationships between local and non-local Indigenous individuals and collectives may be problematic in general development contexts and the post-disaster landscape in particular. This emphasises the need for informed engagement with Indigenous communities which would enable more efficient disaster responses in many countries.

A PDF of the article can be download here

Monday, August 11, 2014

Deprivation in Otautahi/Christchurch post-disaster

Interesting research by University of Otago academics showing the change in wealth across the city in the post-disaster landscape...

A little spooky having the graphic, 'Look mummy, there's our house...', and The Press article noting how many Maserati's have been sold in the city (12) is somewhat insulting, but yet more confirmation that for Maori in the city, life is a struggle.

Thursday, August 07, 2014

Friday, August 01, 2014

Maori well-being post-disaster

The latest CERA Well-being Survey - the fourth since the big one - shows Maori are still less likely to rate their lives in the city post-disaster as positive:

Despite the ongoing trumpeting of a 'resilient' community, Maori now worse off than October 2012.

Hard rain is falling...

Thursday, July 17, 2014

Other Maori CoRE bid...

Most korero about the CORE rebid process this year has been the failure of the Nga Pae bid to get shortlisted. This was positioned as the only Maori CoRE bid, and therefore doubly important.

I've seen the full list and note there was another bid, from AUT, on 'endangered language revitalisation'. The short blurb argues we have particular experience in this to which I would say ae, just like our preservation of endangered birds where we wait until we're down to a few knackered breeding pairs and force them to mate...

Heio ano, they didn't get through either. Curious there was so little confab about this in the wash-up.

Thursday, June 26, 2014

Iwi Development As-It-Is: the Maori economy, capitalism, and democracy

Increasing chatter from the 2011 BERL report which cemented the 30-sumpin' billions we are worth ;)  Innovation (and science) drive a lot of this re-positioning of the so-called Maori economy. (My thoughts on this are out there). I think we need to get our facts right too...I was at an international conference where a Maori researcher argued the Maori economy was now 25% of the NZ economy.

'No,' says I, 'surely it's just 5-6%?'

'No,' sez she, 'it's $36 billion...'

'Yes,' sez I, 'from the 2011 Nana report...' which usefully provides a piechart showing Maori contributing 5-6%, which includes self-employed Maori ($5.4 billion) and Maori employers ($20.8b) taken from Stats NZ data. The guts of the 'Maoriness' of this economy is that encompassed by Maori trusts et cetera: $10.6 billion.

Heoi ano. Of course economic activities can - and I would argue, should - be interpreted as all-encompassing, a subset of our mythical and environmental parameters. (Don't panic, Judeo-Christians have thought this way through generations of capitalists...). The back story is that mainstream NZers have been on a nice little earner here in Aotearoa.

Circumstances have changed.

The capitalist mode of production still rests on the fact that the material conditions of production are in the hands of non-workers in the form of property - capital and land - while the masses are only owners of the personal condition of production, their labor power.

Further, the peculiar evolution that is neoliberalism now appears in all its stunted glory. Aotearoa/NZ's strategy seems to be a state of 'not-being': not being Spain, not being Ireland, not being Greece.

But as we stumble into a post-settlement era, Maori have a unique position: increasing numbers of us are capital owners (land and assets), albeit as often (very) small-shareholders, while remaining reliant on selling what labour power we possess to survive.

Awhile ago, after the NZ government had replaced the democratically-elected (regional) Environment Canterbury councillors. Local iwi authority, Te Runanga o Ngai Tahu, support this usurpation. And why wouldn't they? The previous arrangement hardly worked in their favour and now that the government is hell-bent on opening up water for dairying, TRoNT are well-positioned to milk this for all its worth through Ngai Tahu Farms.

Our economy is sexy at the moment, not least as the global capitalist system has squeezed all the low hanging fruit and is looking to drill down - pun intended -and move into the peripheries, literally and philosophically, with Indigenous land and resources now being revisited for ongoing commodification and capitalist economic growth.

Hard rain's gonna fall...

Monday, June 23, 2014

Ru Whenua work acknowledged: Heroism award to Ngai Tahu Fireman

Great to see the heroism of Scott Shadbolt acknowledged by the government today. Scott was the first participant in our research and has just been awarded the New Zealand Bravery Medal for his heroic efforts as an USAR (Urban Search and Rescue) first responder through the February 22 earthquake of 2011. 

Ka nui te mihi ki a koe Scott, he toa, he rangatira!

Updates of our research are regularly posted on these pages but also Lincoln University's ‘Conversations’ webpage and a Facebook page .

Sunday, June 15, 2014

Message to the 7th generation...

Tena Koutou!
First, I hope you are lucky enough to speak the same language as everyone else on the planet. I hope they still have the words creole and bastard for this (they were all Peoples), and pidgin or slang, but if not I'm sure you have words of equal weight and beauty.

Second, because you have so much mail I will tell only one story. A Matariki dinner (and complete with Matariki Aspire vin) saw me at a table with seven, eight, then nine, of the most beautiful, intelligent, witty dining companions I have ever had the pleasure of breaking bread with. All women, all Maori. As a 21st centruy graduate of Canterbury University and its geography department the gender ratio was unusual but not especially so; it was once within the bounds of your tipuna's imagination! That they were Maori was notable but after all, it was an Indigenous peoples conference in Aotearoa. I'm dead, not stupid.

No, it was the paucity of Maori men (initially at least, thankfully nga tane gravitated to our table after the second course and third drink...) that amazed me and, perhaps, disappointed my companions, for what is a ball for except to eat drink and meet members of a complementary orientation. (Of course maybe they did all meet companions of a complementary orientation; again this was once within the bounds of your koro's imagination). That was the night I saw a simple and abhorrent truth: community is matriarchal/outside is patriarchal/violence will visit, from the latter to the first (not necessarily brought by Pakeha, not necessarily by men), and children will be scared instead of sacred.

Forgive your parents if their fears have become yours, they were my fears first of all. My fear of losing you and seeing you scared and scarred. I didn't want to lose any of you, but I lost you all, and I don't want any of my moko's to be scared but you all will be.

Third, a pepeha. Another man once said of our tipuna, who whaled on wooden ships powered by wind and muscle, “Game to the marrow, these fellows are generally selected for harpooners, a post in which a nervous, timid man would be rather out of his element.” Ironic that nervous, timid men should be so comfortable in the company of tyrants.

naku noa et cetera
simon lambert
b. Wanganui, Oct. 17th, 1965.
Simon Lambert

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