We define ‘ecosystem services’ (ES) as the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Ecosystems are widely considered to provide four categories of services: supporting (e.g. nutrient cycling, soil formation and primary production); provisioning (e.g. food, fresh water, wood, fibre and fuel); regulating (e.g. climate regulation, flood and disease regulation, and water purification); and cultural (aesthetic, spiritual, educational and recreational).
|Interactions between ecosystem services, human needs, satisfiers and wellbeing.|
Of course ecological systems have played an important role in the survival and development of Māori as a people, as they have for all societies. However, Māori identity also has more subtle connections with the land and water, such that ‘Māori aspirations and well-being are interdependent on ecosystems and ecosystem services’ (Harmsworth & Awatere 2013: 274). The relationships continue to be recited through ancient waiata/songs and whakataukī/proverbs, which rekindle the breadth and depth of their engagement with the enveloping ecosphere (Kawharu 2002; Selby 2010).
The report is available through the DoC website.