Saturday, June 05, 2004

Annotated Bibliography of Maori Horticulture

This bibliography is a work in progress. Texts are collated under broad categories and in chronological order of initial publishing. Iwi and hapu names are noted in parenthesis to aid those who are interested in their own tribal history, or in regional geohistory. If anyone has any suggestions (and from any discipline), please send them in.

1. Historical

Savage, J. 1807/1973 Some Account of New Zealand, Capper Press, 110 pp.
A short but incisive memoir with some general observations of Maori agriculture. Savage noted the extensive diffusion of the (wild) cabbage ‘so general [in Northland] …that you would suppose it an indigenous plant of the country.’ As produce marketers, Maori are credited ‘…with all the dexterity of a Jewish or Christian dealer.’

Swainson, W. 1859/1997 New Zealand and its Colonization, Kiwi Publishers, 416 pp.
Brief and unsourced notes on the establishment and success of Maori agri-industry (pp 65-66).

Best, E. 1976 [1925] Maori Agriculture: The Cultivated Food Plants of the Natives of New Zealand, with some account of Native Methods of Agriculture, its Ritual and Origin Myths, Dominion Museum Bulletin, No. 9.
A standard text on the subject although more an uncritical collection of other writers notes and observations, of which an extensive array are presented. Perhaps this work could most charitably be considered a rather good collation of many Maori words, offered from a range of iwi, that were used to describe aspects of traditional horticulture.

Alley, G.T. and Hall, D.O.W. 1941 The Farmer In New Zealand, Dept. of Internal Affairs, Wellington, x; 156 pp.
The sixth of 13 volumes published by the Department of Internal Affairs as a ‘Centennial Survey’. Chapter 1, ‘The Maori Farmer’, is a brief but sympathetic historical overview of post-contact Maori agriculture. The book includes a useful collection of notes on sources used, revealing the ubiquitous Best as the principal source for this chapter.

Schaniel, W.C. 1988 'New Technology and Culture Change in Traditional Societies' Journal of Economic Issues, Vol 22 (2): 493-498.
Schaniel, W.C. 2001 ‘European technology and the New Zealand Maori Economy: 1769-1840’ The Social Science Journal, Vol. 38 (1): 137

Two sources that are supportive of the rather obvious (if minority) concept that in adopting technologies, communities simultaneously adapt said technology.

McAloon, J. 2002 ‘Resource Frontiers, environment, and settler capitalism : 1769-1860’ pp 52-68 in Pawson, E. and Brooking, T. (eds) Environmental Histories of New Zealand, Oxford University Press, 342 pp.
Excellent overview of the forces which entwinned Maori into their first experiences of globalisation. McAloon makes specific mention of the environmental effects of expanding capitalism, noting that tribal autonomy was accepted prior to 1840 but the rapid settlement of Europeans led to the increasing exclusion of Maori. Commodification may have begun with the natural and (Maori) farmed produce, but ended with the extensive alienation of land and a concommittant implantation of capitalist social relations.

Howe, K.R. 2003 The Quest for Origins: Who first discovered and settled New Zealand and the Pacific Islands?, Auckland: Penguin, 235 pp.
Excellent synopsis of research history and ideas over the vexed question (for Western academia) of the settlement of the Pacific Islands. Easily and necessarily debunks a number of myths, revealing in the process their origin in the need for European explanation and justification.

2. Archeological

Walton, A. 1978 Maori Soils: A Research Essay presented to the University of Auckland in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Anthropology,

Jones, K.L. 2003 ‘Field Archeology and Settlement Distribution in the Waiapu River Valley, East Coast’ NZ Journal Archaeology., Vol 23: 99-127.
Extensive collection of maps, diagrams and aerial photographs of pa sites along and around the Waiapu River system.

Leech, F., Quinn, C., Morrison, J. and Lyon, G. 2003 ‘The Use of Multiple Isotype Signatory in Reconstructing Prehistoric Human Diet from Archeological Bone from the Pacific and New Zealand’ NZ Journal of Archaeology, Vol 23: 31-98.
Interesting application of difficult techniques to make proximate analyses of historical diet by location and technology (i.e. harvest or catching methods). Usefully it contains a ‘European’ group.

3. Ethnobotanical

Crosby, A.W. 1986 Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, xiv; 368 pp.
One of the best works incorporating global, post-Colombian transfers of flora and fauna into examination of New Zealand’s experience that benefited from a Fulbright scholarship at the Alexander Turnbell Library. Contributes breadth and depth to the history of environmental impacts in New Zealand as it argues for an biological and ecological component of the success of European imperialism. Quotes Herman Melville on the “Mowree”, “Game to the marrow, these fellows are generally selected for harpooners, a post in which a nervous, timid man would be rather out of his element.”

Harris, W. and Kapoor, P. (eds) 1990 Nga Mahi Maori o te Wao Nui a Tane: Contributions to an International Workshop on Ethnobotany, Botany Division, DSIR: Christchurch, x, 209 pp.
Significant collection memorialising the processes that led to the Wai 262 claim.

Riley, M. 1994 Maori Healing And Herbal: New Zealand Ethnobotanical Sourcebook, Viking Sevenseas NZ Ltd: Paraparaumu, 528 pp.

Frost, A. 1996 ‘The antipodean exchange: European horticulture and imperial designs’ pp 58-79 in Miller, D.P. and Reill, P.H. (eds) Visions of Empire: Voyages, botany, and representations of nature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xix, 370 pp.
Frost links British imperialism with the exchange of plant specimens, facilitated by Sir Joseph Banks, as a rationale for making Britain independent of other nations as a global maritime empire. New Zealand’s role was not just in providing landfall for seamen but in the provisioning of ships, particularly utilising flax and potatoes which were supplied by Maori growers.

Diamond, J. 1997 Guns, Germs and Steel: A Short History of Everybody for the last 10,000 Years, Vintage: London, 480 pp.
As the title suggests, this is a hugely ambitious work that while suffering from an explicit environmental determinism nevertheless provides an insightful analysis of human history. Maori feature in a case study of technology superiority (and moral inferiority?) with the brutal treatment of Moriori on the Chatham Islands. Likewise Rapanui/Easter Island is trotted out as an example of near-suicidal environmental degradation. Both examples continue the ‘island as laboratory’ concept that has framed much research in and of the Pacific Islands, although Diamond, an ornithologist by training, argues an anti-racist agenda.

Roskruge, N. 1999 'Taewa Maori: Their Management, Social Importance, and Commercial Viability.’ A Report for the Degree Of Resource Management.
Roskruge, N. 2001 'Taewa Maori: Their Management and Commercial Viability' in Howard, M. L. & H. Moller (eds.) He Minenga Whakatü Hua o Te Ao, Murihiku Marae 25 – 27 August 2000. Online at:
Important works that detail some of the history to the establishment of Tahuri Whenua (soon to be formalised Maori growers organisation).

Burtenshaw, M., Harris, G., Davidson, J., Leach, F. 2003 ‘Experimental Growing of Pre-European Cultivars of Kumara (Sweet Potato, Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) at the Southern Margins of Maori Horticulture’ NZ J. Archaeo, Vol 23: 161-188.

Yen, D.E. ‘The Sweet Potato in the Pacific: The Propogation of the Plant in relation to its Distribution’

4. Political-economic

Rose, D., Sanderson, K., Morgan, P. and Andrews, G. 1997 The Nature and Extent of the Maori Economic Base: A report prepared for Te Puni Kokiri, Business and Economic Research Ltd/Federation of Maori Authorities, 53 pp.

Maughamn C.W. and Kingi, T.T. 1997 Efficiency and Maori Land: A Conceptual Framework for Economic Development, Department of Agribusiness and Resource Management, Massey University, Occasional Publication No. 5, July 1997, 31 pp.

Gillespie, A. 1998 'Environmental Politics in New Zealand/Aotearoa: Clashes and Commonality Between Maoridom and Environmentalists' New Zealand Geographer, Vol 54 (1): 19-25.

Broeke, S. 1999 'Maori Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights: An Anthropological Approach to the Protection of Indigenous Rights within a Modern Nation-state and a Global Economy' Oceania Newsletter 22, March 1999.

Maori Economic Development Commission 1999 Importance of Exporting to Maori: A Report Wellington: Infometrics Ltd.

Parker, B. 2000 Maori in the New Zealand Economy (2nd edition) Wellington: Te Puni Kokiri.

Walker, R. 2001 He Tipua: The Life and Times of Sir Apirana Ngata, 443 pp.
Interesting for its insight into legislative context of Maori land use, over which Ngata had considerable experience and input. Easily searched by a relatively good index (these being too often absent or scant in modern text books).

D.V. 2001 Matauranga Maori and Taonga: The Nature and Extent of Treaty Rights held by Iwi and Hapu (regarding) Indigenous Flora and Fauna, Cultural Heritage Objects, Valued Traditional Knowledge, Waitangi Tribunal Report, 168 pp.

New Zealand Institute of Economic Research (Inc.) 2003 Maori Economic Development/Te Ohanga Whaneketanga Maori, Wellington, ix, 106 pp.
Comprehensive description and analysis of a Maori economy not easily observed by earlier methodologies.

5. Food Studies

Rout, E. 1926 Native Diet: With numerous practical recipes William Heinman: London, ix, 140 pp.
A dated attempt at (European) social engineering - via dietary advice – that treats Maori foods as harkening back to a mythical era of native health and prosperity. Full of thoughts such as “There is probably no reason why braken-tapioca should not be made in Great Britain – that would help to solve the problem of the unemployed.” (p9)

Fuller, D. 1978 Maori Food and Cookery, A.H. and A.W. Reed, Wellington, 92 pp.
[Ngati Whakaue]
Very interesting collation of Maori cuisine that reveals the hybrid nature of many ‘traditional’ dishes. The author was born in England, moving to New Zealand at a time (1952) when many traditional methods were still practiced and which he observed. The book has a number of photographs as well as an overview of pre-European food collection and preparation methods.

Battenfeld, N. and Athar, N. n.d. ‘Health Benefits of Traditional Maori Vegetables’ Crop and Food Research,

Gibbs, N. 1996 ‘Genetically Modified Organisms and Maori Cultural and Ethical Issues’ MfE.

Roberts, G. 2000 'Maori Perspectives and the Treaty of Waitangi' pp 26-31 in Davis, R. (ed) Will the ENZ Justify the Genes Proceedings from the Symposium on the Ethics of Genetic Engineering, August 2000, Capital City Forum, Joint Methodist Presbytarian Public Questions Committee: Wellington, 76 pp.

Hutchings, J. 2001 'The Maori View on GM: Molecular Kaitiakitanga' Splice May/June 2001, Vol 7 (4).

6. Maori Resource Management and Agro-ecology

Hargreaves, R.P. 1960 ‘Maori agriculture after the wars: 1871-1886’ Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol 69 (4), December 1960.
Part of a wider inquiry into New Zealand agricultural history that discusses the establishment of several crops. Reveals that poor technology transfer led to the demise of many agricultural and horticultural enterprises. With the aid of many references to the Appendix to the Journal of the House of Representatives, it is a useful paper for regional analyses and hapu history.

Christy, W.H. 1984 ‘The Maori and His Land’ Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association, Vol 45: 38-40.
[Tawapata Inc.]
Basic primer on Maori land issues delivered to Grassland Association conference.

Wirepa, D.I. 1984 ‘Comment by a Maori Farmer’ Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association, Vol 45: 41-43.
[Wharekahika A47 Block]
Personal account of negotiating a lease for the purposes of farming Maori land and subsequent development and problems.

Sandrey, R. 1987 ‘Maori and Pakeha: Land and Fisheries’ Chapter 26 of Wallace, L.T. and Lattimore, R. (eds) Rural New Zealand: What Next?, AERU, Lincoln College.

Dickison, M. 1994 ‘Maori Science? Can Traditional knowledge be considered scientific?’ NZ Science Monthly, May 1994: 6-7

Roberts, M., Norman, W., Minhinnick, N., Wihongi, D. and Kirkwood, C. 1995 ‘Kaitiakitanga: Maori Perspectives on conservation’ Pacific Conservation Biology Vol 2 (1): 7-20.
An almost ubiquitous reference in Maori resource management and environmental discourse.

New Zealand Conservation Authority/ Te Pou Atawhai Taiao o Aotearoa, 1997 Maori Customary Use of Native Birds, Plants and Other Traditional Materials: Interim Report and Discussion Paper, 178 pp.

Durie, M. 1998 Te Mana, Te Kawanatanga: The Politics of Maori Self-Determination, Oxford University Press: Auckland, vii, 280 pp.

Hutchings, J. and Tipene, B. 1998 Tohu Waotu: Maori Environmental Performance Indicators, Prepared for the Ministry for the Environment’s Maori Advisory Group by Tuanuku Maori resource Management Consultancy, 38 pp.

Roberts, G. 2000 'Maori Perspectives and the Treaty of Waitangi' pp 26-31 in Davis, R. (ed) Will the ENZ Justify the Genes Proceedings from the Symposium on the Ethics of Genetic Engineering, August 2000, Capital City Forum, Joint Methodist Presbytarian Public Questions Committee: Wellington, 76 pp.

Tau, Te Maire, 2001a 'Matauranga Maori as Epistemology' pp 61-73 in Sharp, A and McHugh, P (eds) Histories, Power and Loss: Uses of the Past - A New Zealand Commentary Bridget Williams: Wellington, 250 pp.
Tau, Te Maire, 2001b 'The Death of Knowledge: Ghosts on the Plain' NZJ History, Vol 35(2):131-152.
[Ngai Tahu]
Two challenging works by a Ngai Tahu historian.

Kawharu, M.(ed) 2002 Whenua: Managing Our Resources, Redd: Auckland, 400 pp.
Excellent collection of wide-ranging experiences, recounted by Maori who are embedded within contemporary resource management and the complex linkages of technical, legal, political, and commercial institutions that this entails. Against the constant change stand iwi and hapu collectives that have based ownership claims on occupation and offer management skills that have been schooled in controlled exploitation. Irwin and Ruru in ‘Mangatu’ (Chapter 3) provide insight (after Crosby) into a post-Colombian, neo-European agro-ecological development, owned and operated by indigenous family institutions.

The chapter by Jane Stephenson, ‘'The Management of a Maori-owned Resource', pp 169-191 is also notable.

Craig Zinsli ‘Consultation with Maori: One company’s perspective’ (pp 230-251) provides a challenge to the historical partnership of Crown and tangata whenua: are private corporations an alternative and more reliable partner, bound by legally enforceable contracts that are mutually beneficial (as envisaged by the Treaty of Waitangi!)?

Pawson, E. and Brooking, T. (eds) 2002 Environmental Histories of New Zealand, Oxford University Press: Auckland.

Athol Anderson’s ‘A Fragile Plenty: Pre-European Maori and the New Zealand environment’ pp 19-34

Helen Leach ‘Exotic Natives and Contrived Wild Gardens: The 20th century home garden’ pp 214-232

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